Plagiarism and Critical Thinking

Referencing FAQs

Use the FAQs below to see how to reference specific resources in your assignment.

You can use the MARGen references generator to create references in the Marjon version of the Harvard referencing system.

Click here to view the Universities guidance on referencing

What is referencing?

Referencing is the way we acknowledge and identify what and who we have read so that other people can find that information themselves. It is the way the ‘academic community', of which you are now part, share ideas and information, and show respect to other writers.

What is a reference?

A reference is the information someone would need to find any piece of information, idea or theory you have used in your writing. There are two stages to this; the ‘in text' quotation or citation, and your reference list. In your essay you only need to give enough information for someone to be able to find the full publishing details in your reference list. This is usually the author's surname and date of publication, i.e. (Cottrell, 1999). For the system to work you need to use the same name in your in your ‘in text' quotation as appears in your reference list.

What is plagiarism?

You may get accused of plagiarism for a number of reasons the most common problems are inaccurate, incomplete or missing references. Not many students purposefully set out to pass other people's work off as their own. If this is your intention then good luck because you are very unlikely to get away with it and the consequences can be very serious. Lots of students, however, are losing significant numbers of marks because their work contains plagiarised text. In most cases this is not a result of dishonesty but of misunderstandings about what referencing is and how it works. If you cut and paste large chunks of text from the internet, stick in a couple of references to show where you got it from and fill in the gaps with your own words you are probably going to be pulled up for plagiarism. Other people's work should be there to support your knowledge and ideas, not replace them. Knowing how to reference correctly is also very important, if the reader cannot find the source because your reference is incorrect, technically you are committing plagiarism.

Why do I have to reference?

Most students think they have to reference to avoid being accused of plagiarism. While this is true to a certain extent, the real reason for referencing is to show that your work is based on a sound body of knowledge. This is the difference between an academic essay and the kind of essays you may have written before. Referencing is the only way tutors can see that you are developing an informed opinion that is supported by your (academic) reading. Referencing also allows others to have access to your knowledge base.

What is an ‘in text’ reference or citation’?

This is when you are quoting either directly or indirectly from a source of information.( See below for the difference between a direct and indirect in text citation.) You must always include the author and date, e.g.:- • According to Read (2103) ….. Or • eLearning can provide a multiplicity of opportunities to incorporate technology effectively into a student’s learning journey (Read, 2013). There may be more than one author or it may be an organisation. (See relevant section below). It is accepted that when you are quoting from an internet source there may be no date. However, it is accepted practice that if there is a date then the source is more likely to be reliable.

What is a reference list?

A reference list is an alphabetical list of the full publishing details of all the sources you have referred to in your essay. It does not matter if they are books, journals or websites, they must all appear in alphabetical order otherwise the reader will have to spend time searching for the correct source. The ‘in text' quotation must link directly to the reference list, so if the author referred to in the text is Andrews, this is the name that must appear first in your reference list.

What kind of information needs to be in the reference list?

In your reference list you need to give the full publishing details of the source, i.e. as much information as you can so that someone else could easily find it for themselves. For a book that would mean the author's surname and initials, date of publication, title of publication, place of publication and publisher. Example: • Andrews, R. (2010) Argumentation in Higher Education: improving practice through theory and research. London: Routledge.

What does a reference list look like?

The format of a reference list can vary, however, it is better to use single line spacing in your reference list. Some tutors prefer ‘hanging indentations' to make it easier to find the author's names, you could also leave a line space between each reference as in the example below. Whatever format you decide on, it is vital that the list is alphabetical, easy to negotiate and consistent. Most importantly, the surnames/organisations you have used to arrange your reference list must link up to your ‘in text' quotations.

Example of Reference List:-

Abrahams, M. (2011) Improbable Research: is that a shy sheep or a bold sheep? The Guardian (Education supplement). April 5th 2011: 7.

Andrews, R. (2010) Argumentation in Higher Education: improving practice through theory and research. London: Routledge.

Bailey, S. (2011) Academic Writing: a handbook for international students. (3rd ed.) London: Taylor and Francis. Kindle edition. [accessed July 31st 2011]

Barnett, R. (2009) Realising the university in the 21st century: issues and possibilities. Higher Education Academic Conference 2009. University of Manchester, June 30th – July 2nd 2009. [Online] Available from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/audioandvideo/annualconference2009 [accessed July 31st 2011]

BBC 2. (2009) The Wire: the target. March 30th, 2009. [TV]

BBC 2. (2011) Human Planet: cities. March 23rd, 2011. [TV]

Bell, J. (2010) Doing Your Research Project. (5th ed.) Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Brock, C. (2011) Education as a Global Concern. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. [Online] Available from: http://lib.myilibrary.com?ID=301587 [accessed July 31st 2011]

Cottrell, S. (2011a) The Palgrave Student Planner 2011-12. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cottrell, S. (2011b) Critical Thinking Skills: developing effective analysis and argument. (2nd ed.) Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Department for Education & Skills. (2006) Widening Participation in Higher Education. London: DfES.

Gleeson, D. (2010) Research questions and research design. In Hartas, D. (ed) Education Research and Inquiry: qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: Continuum Publishing Corporation: 85-94.

Godwin, J. (2009) Planning Your Essay. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Great Britain. (2010) Child Poverty Act. London: HMSO.

Greenbank, P. and Penketh, C. (2009) Student autonomy and reflections on researching and writing the undergraduate dissertation. Journal of Further & Higher Education. Vol 33, No. 4: 463-472.

Paul, R. and Elder, L. (2011) Critical Thinking: tools for taking charge of your learning and your life. (3rd ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Rectenwald, M. and Carl, L. (2011) Academic Writing across the Disciplines. Harlow: Longman Publishers.

Ritchart, R., Church, M. and Morrison, K. (2011) Making Thinking Visible: how to promote engagement, understanding and independence for all learners. New Jersey: Jossey Bass.

Seale, J. (2010) Doing student voice work in higher education: an exploration of the value of participatory methods. British Educational Research Journal. Vol. 36, No. 6: 995-1015. [Online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920903342038 [accessed July 31st 2011]

Sport England. (Date unknown). Understanding Participation. [Online] Available from http://www.sportengland.org/support_advice/county_sports_partnerships.aspx [accessed July 31st 2011]

Sports Council Wales. (2009) Young People’s Participation in Sport. Cardiff: Sports Council Wales.

The Social Network. (2010) Fincher, D. California: Columbia Pictures. [Film]

Warren, D. (2001) Nice Girls ‘Still’ Don’t: some teenage perceptions of girls and boys behaving badly in the 21st century. Unpublished BA dissertation. Plymouth: University College Plymouth St Mark & St John.

What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?

A bibliography is slightly different from a reference list because it can include publishing details of sources you have not referred to directly in your essay. For this reason your tutors are much more interested in the sources you have actually used, i.e. your reference list. Although all academic work needs a reference list, a bibliography is normally only included in longer pieces of work such as dissertations and books.

What are the basic rules of referencing?

  1. You cannot avoid referencing in academic work
  2. The ‘in text' quotation must link to your reference list
  3. The reference list should include as much publishing information as possible
  4. A reference works if the reader can locate the source quickly and easily
  5. You must use a consistent format

What is the difference between a direct and an indirect quote?

A direct quote is the exact words used by an author. A direct quote needs to be in double quotation marks and to be followed by a reference that includes the number of the page the quote comes from. The quotation can come before or after the quote.

Example:

  • "It is really not that difficult to reference resource material correctly" (Arksey and Harris, 2007:108)
  • As Arksey and Harris (2007:108) point out, "it is really not that difficult to reference resource material correctly."

An indirect quote is a summary or paraphrase of the author's words. It does not need quotation marks and the reference does not need to include the page number. For example:

  • According to Arksey and Harris (2007), it is quite easy to reference sources correctly.

What if I have a long direct quote

If your direct quote is more than 3 lines in length, then it needs to be indented and single spaced.

Example:-

They are feeding off the violence and the despair of the drug trade. They are stealing from those who themselves are stealing the lifeblood from our city. They are a parasite who leeches off the culture of drugs. (Levy, 2005)

What is a ‘Secondhand’ reference?

Where one author quotes the work of another, the phrase ‘cited in' or 'quoted in' is used when you acknowledge the source of the information in your text.

For an in-text reference:

You reference according to whether you have made a direct or indirect reference, and you need to provide the publication year for both the author being quoted and the work in which it is being quoted,

Example:-

Richardson and Woodley, 2008, cited in Bell, 2010:10). (This is a direct quote, therefore the page numbers are required.)

For your list of references:

At the end of your work, you would only include the reference for the SOURCE you have read, i.e. the work that is quoting the other author. The source can be a book, journal, Internet etc. and this is the only information which is required in your reference list.

Example:-

Bell, J. (2010) Doing Your Research Project. (5th ed.) Maidenhead: Open University Press.

(You would include the work by BELL in the reference list, NOT Richardson and Woodley.)

How do I reference a book?

For your ‘in text' quotation you will need to include the author's surname, the date the book was published (not reprinted) and, if it is a direct quote, you will need the number of the page the quote was taken from.

Example:

Cottrell (1999: 1) states that "a reflective, active, self-evaluating approach to learning develops deeper understanding in the long run."

In order to develop a deeper understanding, Cottrell (1999) argues that it is vital that students take a reflective, active and self-evaluative approach to their learning.

In the reference list you need to give the full publishing details of the book; author's surname and initials, date of publication, title of book, place of publication and publisher.

Example:

Cottrell, S. (1999) The Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Associated Book Referencing FAQs:

1. What if the book has more than one author?

If the book has two authors, both of them are used in the ‘in text' reference.

Example:

  • "It is really not that difficult to reference resource material correctly" (Arksey and Harris 2007: 108)

In your reference list you will also need to mention both authors.

Example:

  • Arksey, H. and Harris, D. (2007) How to succeed in your Social Science Degree. London: Sage.

If the book has more than two authors, you only need to mention the first author's surname in your essay but you also need to use the Latin term et al. (et alia) to show there are other authors. All Latin terms should be in italics.

Example:

  • Altrichter et al., (1993) argue that, although the current period of rapid social change may be viewed as a challenge to stability, it may also result in a more dynamic culture of teaching and learning.

Remember to check your verb agrees, i.e. Altrichter et al., argue not argues because you are citing more than one person, (they argue).

In your reference list you must include the surnames and initials of all the authors.

Example:

  • Altrichter, H., Posch, P. and Somekh, B. (1993) Teachers investigate their work. London: Routledge.

Pay attention to your punctuation; each surname needs to be followed by a comma and each initial by a full stop. Another comma is used to separate each name.

2. What if the book has an editor not an author?

You include the word (ed.) in brackets after the editor's name in your reference list. For Example:

Arksey, H. (ed.) (1992) How to get a first class degree. Lancaster: Unit for Innovation in Higher Education.

3. What if I want to reference a chapter in a collected edition?

If the book is a collection of articles/chapters by different authors, you need to reference each author separately. So, if you want to reference Wilkin's chapter in Arksey's book, it is Wilkin's name you use in your essay.

Example:

  • Wilkin (1992) points out that you can improve your work right up to the last minute if you use a computer.

In your reference list you need to reference Wilkin, the title of the chapter and the book in which his/her chapter appears. You should also include the page numbers of the chapter. Underline the title of the book, not the chapter.

Example:

  • Wilkin, M. (1992) How I got my first in Sociology. In Arksey, H. (ed.) How to get a First Class Degree. Lancaster: Unit for Innovation in Higher Education: 11-23.

4. What if the book is a revised edition?

Example:

  • Collinson, D., Kirkup, G., Kyd, R. and Slocombe, L. (1992) Plain English. (2nd ed.) Buckingham: Open University Press.

5. What if I want to reference another author mentioned in a book?

You will need to do a 'second hand' citation. This means you will need to identify the original author and the source you are using in your essay. In your reference list you only need the details of the source you used.

Example:

  • According to Mitchell (1994:13), "we still do not know exactly what pictures are, what their relation to language is" (cited in Rose, 2001:1).

This is a direct quote from Mitchell that you read in Rose.

  • Buzan (1974 cited in Barnes, 1992) says that a good summary of a lecture is often more useful than extensive notes

This is a paraphrase of Buzan that you read in Barnes.

In your reference list you only give the publishing details for Rose and Barnes because they are the sources you used.

Example:

  • Barnes, R. (1992) Successful Study for Degrees. London: Routledge.

6. What if I want to refer to several books/articles by the same author?

You need to include all the publishing details of sources used, even if they are by the same author. If the publication dates are the same, you can use a,b,c etc. after the date to differentiate between them both in you text and in your reference list.

Example:

In text:

  • Tinker, A. (1989a) shows that telephones provide a crucial service for the elderly.

Reference list:

  • Tinker, A. (1989a) The Telecommunication Needs of Disabled and Elderly People - an exploratory study. London: OFTEL.
  • Tinker, A. (1989b) Better than a neighbour - tenants' view of the phone. Housing. June: 39-41.

7. What if I want to refer to lots of authors who make the same point?

Each author should be referenced and arranged either chronologically or alphabetically in your essay.

Example:

  • Several theorists (Cosgrove 1978, Duncan 1980, and Daniels 1992) mention the importance of ...

All of the authors' publishing details would appear in your reference list.

The principle is the same for a book, i.e. in your essay you need to include the author's surname, date of publication and page number if it is a direct quote.

Example:

  • Spicker (1985) states that freedom cannot exist without equality.

However, in your reference list you need a bit more information for a journal than a book to make it easier for the reader to locate the exact article you are referring to. You will need to include the title of the article and the title of the journal, any volume or issue numbers and the pages on which the article can be found.

Example:

  • Spicker, P. (1985) Why freedom implies equality. Journal of Applied Philosophy. Vol. 2, No. 2: 205-216.

How do I reference an electronic journal?

An electronic journal is referenced in the same way as a paper-based one except you need to include some extra information in the reference list to indicate that it was accessed online. You will need to give the full URL so that the reader can find the source quickly and easily and the accessed date.

Example:

  • Goodchild, S. (1997) Issues raised by a Saussurian analysis of classroom activity. Philosophy of Mathematics Education. Vol. 10: 88-91 [Online] Available from: http://www.ex.ac.uk/~PErnest/pome10/pome10in.htm [Accessed June 26th 2008].

How do I reference the Internet?

There is no standard procedure for referencing the internet, however, referencing on-line resources should follow the same basic Harvard conventions as for books and journals etc., i.e. if possible you should identify the author/s name (or the name of an organisation), date of publication (or the date the site was last updated), title and publisher, and you should try and be consistent.

What are the basic rules of online referencing?

  1. Don't put web addresses in your essay - use the author's surname or the name of the organisation that produced the site.
  2. Make sure your in text reference relates directly to the name used in your reference list.
  3. Identify the reference as an online source, ‘in text' if necessary, and in your reference list.
  4. Give as much information as possible in your reference list.
  5. Make sure you include the full URL (not just the home page) so that the reader can quickly and easily find the precise information you are referring to.
  6. Include the accessed date - online information frequently changes and/or is updated.
  7. Be consistent.

Example:

In text:

  • According to Every Child Matters (2007) there is a good case for educating young offenders.

In your reference list:

  • Every Child Matters (2007) Education for Young Offenders. Department for Schools and Families. [Online] Available from: http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/youthjustice/education/ [Accessed June 30th 2013].

Associated Internet Referencing FAQs:

1. What if there is no date?

If there is no publication date, use the date the site was last updated. If that information is not available use ‘date unknown' and indicate that the source was accessed online.

Example:

  • According to the National Curriculum (D.U.online) "education for sustainable development is an approach to the whole curriculum and management of a school, not a new subject."

2. What if there is no author?

If there is no author, use the name of the organisation that produced the website.

Example:

  • According to Every Child Matters (2007), there is plenty of evidence to show that offending behaviour is more likely to be avoided if young people participate in education, training or employment.

3. What if there are no page numbers?

If there are no page numbers, indicate that it is an online resource.

Example:

  • Every Child Matters (2007, P.U. online) points out that "there is a wealth of evidence to suggest that participation in education, training and employment is a key factor for avoiding engagement in offending behaviour."

4. How do I refer to different areas of a website?

If you want to refer to different areas of a site you will need to differentiate between them in your text and reference list by using a,b,c, etc. You will need to give the full URLs for each web page in your reference list.

Example:

In text:

  • Every Child Matters (2007a accessed online) states that "there is a wealth of evidence to suggest that participation in education, training and employment is a key factor for avoiding engagement in offending behaviour."
Reference List:
  • Every Child Matters (2007a) Education for Young Offenders. Department for Schools and Families. [Online] Available from: http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/youthjustice/education/ [Accessed June 30th 2013].
  • Every Child Matters (2007b) Youth Justice. Department for Children, Schools and Families. [Online] Available from: http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/youthjustice/ [Accessed January 22nd 2013].

How do I reference an e-book accessed via a platform service (e.g. MyiLibrary)

In text:- reference according to whether you have made a direct or indirect quote (see above)

Reference List:-at the end of your work, a reference for the book would appear as follows in the box below. Look at 10.9 for an example of what your list of references should look like. Example:

  • Brock, C. (2011) Education as a Global Concern. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. [Online] Available from: http://lib.myilibrary.com?ID=301587 [accessed July 31st 2011]

Key information required:

  • Author surname and initial
  • Year of publication
  • Full book title
  • Publisher location
  • Publisher
  • URL for accessing the book
  • The date that you first accessed the book

Key points to remember:

  • Follow the punctuation and order as in the above example
  • Follow the key points regarding capitalisation of letters as given in 10.8.1
  • Follow the key points regarding underlining/italicising of titles as given in 10.8.1
  • Insert [Online] after the name of the publisher to indicate this in an online resource
  • Insert the date you first accessed the e-book in square brackets after the URL

How do I Reference an e-book accessed via an e-book reader (e.g. a Kindle)

Example

In text

Reference according to whether you have made a direct or indirect quote (seeabove). E-book readers often do not provide page numbers, so you should insert p.u. to indicate that the page is unknown,

  • (Bailey, 2011: p.u. Kindle)

Reference List

At the end of your work, a reference for the book would appear as follows below.

Example:

  • Bailey, S. (2011) Academic Writing: a handbook for international studentsm. (3rd ed). London: Taylor and Francis. Kindle edition. [accessed July 31st 2011].

Key information required:

Author surname and initial

  • Year of publication
  • Full book title
  • Publisher location
  • Publisher
  • The e-book reader that you used to access the book
  • The date that you first accessed the book

Key points to remember:

  • Follow the punctuation and order as in the above example
  • Follow the key points regarding capitalisation of letters as given in 10.8.1
  • Follow the key points regarding underlining/italicising of titles as given in 10.8.1
  • Insert the type of e-book reader in italics after the publisher details to indicate that you have used a reader version of the book

How to reference online communication

Publicly available discussion lists

Discussion lists should include the following information:

  • Author.
  • Year.
  • Title of message.
  • Discussion list name, month and day-in italics, or underlined
  • Available at:
  • E-mail list address or Internet address
  • Date accessed. [in square brackets]

A blog

Note that the month and day, as well as the year, are provided after the author’s name:

  • Author
  • Year of post
  • Title of post
  • [Online]
  • Date of post DD MM YYYY
  • Available from:
  • URL
  • Date you first accessed the blog post

Example:

Beard, M. (2014) To curtsey or not to curtsey. [Online] 08 June 2014. Available from: http://timesonline.typepad.com/ [accessed 11 December 2014].

How do I reference Email Messages

Referencing personal emails may occasionally be required, especially if you are involved in group work, or are corresponding with a subject expert. Usually it covered simply by the term ‘Personal Communication’ details available on request – or including the text of the email as an appendix, as there are data protection issues.

How do I reference social networking sites

You may need to reference materials from a social networking site such as FaceBook, or Twitter. Before using these sites as a source for academic work it is important to consider whether they are relevant for an academic assignment. In some cases, for example, they may be appropriate to provide examples of a society in transition. Bear in mind, however, that the site you refer to may have limited access, and you may have to provide additional evidence for your source. To reference such sources use the same principles as when referencing a website.

Example using Twitter would be:

Rob Jewitt (@rob_jewitt) (2012), "The problem with nerd politics gu.com/p/37hyb", Twitter, 14 May 2012, 8:55pm. Available at http://twitter.com/#!/rob_jewitt/status/202124949522104322 (Accessed: 15 May 2012)

In the body of the text you should cite the name, if possible, and the twitter name as well as the date.

How do I reference on online video

Example using YouTube:-

Art for Earth (uploader/publisher) 2009 (year it was made/uploaded), 'Energy revolution' (title) video, YouTube, 15 February (date it was uploaded), ), URL, accessed 11 January 2010 (last time you viewed it). The information in brackets is the explanation of what is needed in the reference.

How do I reference a TV/radio programme?

There are no standardised conventions but as with all your references you should provide enough information to allow someone to trace your source. In the case of news progammes for example, that would mean including both the date and time of broadcast.

Example:

  • ITV, (January 1995) World in Action-All work and no play. [TV].
  • ITV, (June 26th 2008. 2200hrs) News at Ten. [TV].

If you want to reference a particular individual's contribution to the programme then you may include his/her name.

Example:

  • Letwin, O. (November 20th 2002 0810hrs) Interview. Today. BBC Radio 4 [radio].

How do I reference a newspaper article?

Try and include as much information as possible. Remember newspapers are published daily/weekly and contain numerous articles so you will need to include the author (if possible) the exact date of publication and the page number of the article.

Example:

  • Ward, D. (2001) Crackdown to quell race riots. The Guardian. 9th July: 1.

If you can’t identify the author, you can use the name of the newspaper as your author.

Example:

  • Observer (2008) Europe hotels slash prices. Observer. 6th July: 7.

How do I reference a film?

There are no standardised conventions but as with all your references you should provide enough information to allow someone to trace your source. You need to include the title, date of release, director's name, place of publication, production company name and format-the format will include where you accessed the film e.g. via Netflix or Amazon Prime, or another online film service.

Example

  • Forman, M. (1975) One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. United Artists. [Film: accessed via Netflix]

How do I reference a CD or online music?

Example

There are no standardised conventions but as with all your references you should provide enough information to allow someone to trace your source. If you accessed via You Tube, iTunes or Spotify for example you need to make this clear as well.

Example

  • Westlife (2001) World of Our Own. London: RCA CD 74321903082 [CD]
  • Sugarhill Gang (1981) 8th Wonder. New York: Sugar Hill. [Accessed via Spotify]

How do I reference CD-ROMs?

A CD-ROM should be cited in your text by author and date of publication. In your reference list you will need to identify the source as a CD-ROM. Example:

  • Royal Institute of British Architects (1998) Architecture and Design Illustrated. London: RIBA [Multi-media CD-ROM].

How do I reference literature?

The same principles apply for literature as for other sources.

Example:

  • "We didn't notice how they hinted that nothing is ever finished, that struggles are never truly concluded, that sometimes we have to re-dream our lives, and that life can always be used to create more light" (Okri , 1993: 3).
  • "There blossomed suddenly a magic bed of sacred ditamy, and poppies red" (Keats cited in Barnard, 1998: 121-122).

In your reference list you must give the full publishing details.

Example:

  • Okri, B. (1993) Songs of Enchantment. London: Vintage.
  • Keats, J. (1998) Endymion. In Barnard, J. (ed.) The Complete Poems. (3rd edition) London: Penguin:107-216.

How do I reference an image?

For images which are ‘stand alone’, for example such as a postcard, advertising image or photograph, there may be limited details available for referencing purposes, but the following should be supplied as far as possible:

  • Author / Artist
  • Title or brief description. This should be underlined or in italics.
  • Medium (postcard, advertising image, photograph, painting) [in square brackets]
  • Location viewed at / publisher
  • Date viewed

Example 1:

  • Edinburgh tenements 1895. 2007. [postcard] Edinburgh: Heritage Images.

Example 2:

  • Primark. Undated. We know where you live. . . [billboard] Lothian Road, Edinburgh. Viewed July 20 2008.

All on-line visual images, including clip-art, should always be acknowledged, as follows:

  • Title of image or description. This should be underlined or in italics.
  • Year
  • Online image [in square brackets]
  • Available at: followed by the internet address
  • Date accessed [in square brackets]

Example:

  • Boy dressed in vampire costume. 2007. [online image] Available at: http://wwwinmagine.com [accessed July 15 2008].

Where a website specifically requires that you cite extra information as a condition of using their site, this must also be included.

How do I reference a lecture?

You should not be referencing lectures or lecture notes. During a lecture your tutor will refer to some primary sources, i.e. the books etc. he or she has drawn from. It is these sources that you need to read and refer to.

How do I reference Acts of Parliament?

Normally you would use the title of the Act and the date as your ‘in text' reference.

Example:

  • According to the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) ...

The full reference would be:

  • Disability Discrimination Act, 1995. London: HMSO.

How do I reference Her Majesty's Command papers?

This includes things like white and green papers, reports by Royal Commissions, reports on inquiries and investigations. As with all references, give as much information as possible, and include the Command Paper number which is usually prefixed Cmnd.

Examples:

  • Home Office (2002) Secure Borders, Safe Haven: Integration with Diversity in Modern Britain. (Cmnd. 5387). London: HMSO.
  • Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, 1978. (Pearson Report) (Cmnd. 7054). London: HMSO.
  • House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, 2012. The Work of the Border Force. (HC 523, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13) - Report, Together with Formal Minutes. London: HMSO

How do I reference Government Departmental papers?

In this case use the Department as the author.

Example:

  • Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (1998) Focus on Personal Travel. London: HMSO.

How do I reference a dissertation?

Along with the author, title etc., you will need to include the level of dissertation/thesis and awarding institution.

Example:

  • Nairn, K. (1998) Disciplining Identities: Gender, Geography and the Culture of Fieldtrips. PhD thesis. Hamilton, University of Waikato.

If it is an unpublished dissertation you should not underline the title and you need to identify it as unpublished work.

Example:

  • Bowles, B. (1994) Euthanasia - a critical exploration of some wider issues. Unpublished BA Dissertation. University College of St. Mark and St. John.

How do I reference a conference paper?

You will need to include as much information as possible including the name/s of the contributor/s, the title of contribution, the editor of the conference proceedings, the title of the conference (underlined or in italics) and the place and date.

Example:

  • Ferris, L. (2001) Female Entrepreneurialism. In Shaw, J.D. (ed) International Conference - Women as Leaders. London 12th -14th June 2000. London: Information Sharing Forum Report: 245 – 267.

How do I reference unpublished work?

If the work is unpublished you should not underline the title and you should identify the source as unpublished.

Example:

  • Bowles, B. (1994) Euthanasia - a critical exploration of some wider issues. Unpublished BA Dissertation. University College of St. Mark and St. John.

Remember unpublished work does not carry the same academic weight as published sources.

How do I reference email discussion lists?

You will need to give as much information as possible and identify your source as a discussion list.

Example:

  • Storey, D. (2002) Policing the academy Crit-Geog-Forum, October 2002 [Internet Discussion list Online]. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk [Accessed November 20th 2002].

How do I reference personal communication?

If there is a need to cite unpublished information gained from a private letter, conversation or interview you should give the person's name and date in your text.

You may wish to include the person's title/position in your reference list.

Example:

  • White, A. (2005) Personal Communication.
  • Goodfellow, S. (2005) Chief Ecologist, Dartmoor National Park Authority. Personal Communication.

You should be aware that issues of confidentiality may apply.

How Do I Reference an APP?

Example

  • Skyscape, A. 2012, Skyscape Medical Resource, version 1.8.33, mobile app, viewed 18 Jun 2013 play.google.com/store
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